Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak has told a court that he did not order the killing of protesters in 2011.
Mubarak, 86, was speaking for the first time in court, at a hearing in his retrial on charges of conspiracy to kill hundreds of demonstrators.
Mubarak admitted that he had made mistakes, but he said he did his best to fulfil his duties as president.
He was overthrown in a popular uprising in February 2011 after nearly 30 years in office.
Mubarak resigned after 18 days of public protests, in which at least 365 people died.
The proceedings have been adjourned to 27 September, when a verdict in the case is expected.
During Wednesday’s court statement, which lasted nearly 25 minutes, Mubarak sat in the dock in a wheelchair.
“Mohammed Hosni Mubarak, appearing before you today, had never ordered the killing of protesters or the shedding of Egyptian blood,” the former leader said.
“I spent my whole life defending Egypt and its sons. I say before God, you and the people that I have spent my life fighting the enemies of the country.”
He added that as he approached the end of his life, his conscience was clear.
In 2012, Mubarak was found guilty over the killing of protesters and sentenced to life imprisonment, along with former Interior Minister Habib al-Adly.
But in January 2013, the Court of Cassation upheld their appeal on technical grounds and ordered a retrial.
This began five months later, but was adjourned several times.
In May this year, Mubarak was sentenced to three years in prison after a court found him guilty of embezzling public funds. His sons Alaa and Gamal were also convicted, and received four-year terms.